Timeline of Jemez Mountains Recorded History by Decade


2015  Valles Caldera National Preserve becomes part of National Park Service

2011  Las Conchas fire

2010  Rio Metro provides first bus service to communities in Sandoval County


2009 Major remodel of Jemez Springs Public Library


2000 Valles Caldera National Preserve created

2000  Cerro Grande fire

1998  Highway through Jemez Mountains designated Jemez Mountain Trail National Scenic Byway

1998  Jemez Valley Medical Clinic opens in Cañon

1998  New post office building opens in Jemez Springs

1997  Sulphur Canyon Internet Service opens

1997  Hot Rocks geothermal site closes

1995  Jemez Springs wins All-American City award

1995  First issue of Jemez Thunder


1989  Community Center built in Cañon


1975  Jemez Springs installs waste treatment plant

1973  Bodhi Mandala Zen Center established

1972  Via Coeli built in Jemez Springs


1967  Hot Rocks geothermal site opens

1967  San Ysidro incorporated

1964  First telephone service; first phone installed in Abousleman house in Jemez Springs

1964  San Pedro Parks established as a wilderness area


1959  Hummingbird Music Camp founded by Lloyd Higgins

1958  American Legion Post #75 chartered

1956  Jemez Valley School District established

1955  Village of Jemez Springs incorporated


1947  Fr. Fitzgerald founds Servants of the Paraclete and Handmaids of the Precious Blood

1948  Jemez Mountains Electric Cooperative incorporated

1948  Rail line up Guadalupe Canyon abandoned and rails taken up; tunnels enlarged for logging trucks

1944   Camp Shaver construction begins

1941    Major flood destroys railroad trestles and miles of track; railroad subsequently abandoned


1935 Logging begins in Baca Location No. 1; road built by CCC from Los Alamos to Cuba

1935 Gusiewa site becomes Jemez State Monument


1925  Rancho Rea opens

1923  Part of Pueblo land condemned to allow railroad construction

1922  White Pine Lumber Company begins logging in the Jemez Mountains;

1922  Tunnels were blasted through Guadalupe Box Canyon to as part of construction of logging railroad


1916   First school in Jemez Springs

1915   Santa Fe National Forest created

1912   New Mexico becomes a state


1907 Post office changed from Perea to Jemez Springs

1905  Jemez Forest Reserve established

1903  Sandoval County created out of Bernalillo County

1903  Nathan Bibo opens mercantile stores in San Ysidro and Bland


1894  (Jemez Springs) Post office changes from Archuleta to Perea


1881  Presbyterian church and mission established in Jemez Springs

1888 First (Jemez Springs) post office, named Archuleta

1888 First of several visits to pueblo ruins including Guisewa by famed archaeologist Adolph Bandelier

1880 Mariano Otero and Miguel Otero (the senior) pursue plan to develop hot springs as a resort

1887  Post office established in Cuba


1876  Baca Location No. 1 (now Valles Caldera National Preserve) awarded to Baca heirs after decades of court battles

1875  Oscar Loew, U.S. Topographical Engineers, writes report on Gusiewa

1874  Post office established in San Ysidro


1870 – 78 First bath house built in Jemez Springs


1850s (exact dates unknown)  First public bath opened by Archuleta; first settler(s) in what is now Jemez Springs aka Hot Springs aka Jemez Hot Springs

1852  Bernalillo County created (one of seven original counties in New Mexico Territory)

1865 Jemez Springs acequia system recorded


1850  New Mexico becomes U.S. Territory

1849  Lt. James Simpson, U.S. Corps of Topographical Engineers, leads expedition to explore area, reports hot springs

1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo signed, cedes what is now New Mexico to U.S.



1821   Luis Maria Cabeza de Baca Grant awarded, part of which eventually become Baca Location No. 1 and much later becomes Valles Caldera National Preserve

1821  Spain grants independence to Mexico




1798  Cañon de San Diego grant awarded by Spanish crown

1785  San Ysidro de los Delores land grant awarded by Spanish crown

1769  Joaquin de Naciamento grant awarded by Spanish crown to settlers in what is now Cuba

1768  Ojo de los San Jose grant awarded by Spanish crown (included what is now Ponderosa and the community of Sierra Los Pinos)

1776  Mission church established at Walatowa


1706 Walatowa becomes sole location of Jemez people; first Catholic mission established at that location


1699  San Ysidro settled

1696 Final revolt of Jemez people, who then fled after final defeat in battle on Guadalupe Mesa

1692  Reconquest by Spanish

1680 Pueblo revolt


1621   Mission of San Jose de Guisewa, sometimes called San Jose de Jemez, established (now Jemez Historic Site)


1598  New Mexico becomes Spanish colony

1598  First mission at Guisewa (abandoned in 1599)

1583  Espejo-Beltran expedition comes through this area

1581  Rodriguez-Chamuscado expedition comes through this area


1541  First Spanish arrive—Capt. Francisco de Barrionnuevo, under command of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, explored the valley and noted approximately 30 Jemez villages


Archaeologists have divided the pre-contact history of the Pueblo people into five periods as described below. Jemez people continued to live in some of their numerous pueblos after the Spanish entrada, so the timeline shows some overlap.

1600CE-present:  Historic Period — Described in detail in the timeline.

1300-1600CE: Classic Period — Characterized by large pueblos on mesa tops, the largest of which had approximately 3,000 rooms and covered 30 acres.

1200-1300CE: Coalition Period — Characterized by increasing population, variety of ceramics and mid-sized pueblos, often near rivers and some on mesa tops.

600BCE-1200CE: Developmental — Characterized by first appearance of ceramics, dwellings were pithouses near streams.

600BCE–earlier: Archaic Period — Characterized by seasonal hunting camps. First evidence of agriculture, dated to approximately 2440BP as revealed by findings in Jemez Cave on the Jemez River near the modern Village of Jemez Springs.