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Jemez Valley History

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Do you know where this school was and when this photo was taken? Can you identify anyone in the photo? Photographer unknown. Date unknown. Photo courtesy of the Abousleman family.


If you can answer these questions, call or send an email to Judith Isaacs, 575-829-3382,; or Jemez Springs Public Library, 575-829-9155,

The Clay Hotel, also known as the Esperanza Hotel or Esperanza Ranch, was demolished when Via Coeli was built across from what is now Jemez Historic Site. According to information shared by Amie Adams Green, the hotel was under construction starting in 1921, and hot water came directly from the hot springs. Patricia Bailey provided the following items from the Albuquerque Journal, which have been transcribed for greater legibility.


From the Albuquerque Journal, January 24, 1922


“Construction on the new Clay Hotel in Jemez Springs is progressing rapidly. It is expected that the building will be completed for use by May, according to Linus Shields, of Jemez, who was in the city yesterday. The new hotel will contain fifty guest rooms and will be modern in every respect with water piped firect from a mountain spring. The road between Albuquerque and Jemez is in excelling condition, said Mr. Shields, who made the trip down yesterday in three hours.”



From the Albuquerque Journal, April 16, 1922


“Considering the season and the weather, there has been an unusual influx of visitors during the past two weeks due in a great measure in an improvement in the road, which improvements, although not yet complete, enable the trip to  be made in three and a half hours. The worst stretch is within the town of Bernalillo and approaches. The work on the canyon road progresses slowly but steadily and is due to the efforts of a few public-spirited citizens who realize the necessity of encouraging tourists and who are not afraid to give both time and money.

“There has been a decided revival of the boom spirit, but not by boom methods, the revival being not on paper but substantial and visible.

“La Esperanza, better known and probably always will be known as ‘Clay’s hotel,’ due to the personality of Mr. and Mrs. Clay, will be ready for business about May 20, and while the finishing touches are still being made, they take care of week-end parties comfortably, and even if the visitors do have to put up with some minor discomforts, they are always sure of an old-fashioned ‘Clay,’ dinner. Its reputation never fades.

“Located immediately adjoining the old church, built in 1619, now the property of the Archaeological Society, both the Clay hotel and Mrs. J. W. Miller will be prepared to accommodate all visitors, both comfortably and with exceptional cuisine.”


WANTED–A good cook; woman preferred. Also a man who understands the care of the bath house. Address Chas H. Clay, Hotel Clayh, Jemez Springs, N.M.


Photo from the Fenton family collection.

George Miller, Bill, Martha, 1939

George Miller, Bill, Martha, 1939. Found among Adele Schermein’s papers and donated to library.


marie miller 1940s

Marie Miller circa 1940. Found among Adele Schermein’s papers and donated to library.


Some years ago, before the library had a scanner, a descendant of the Block family gave us these photos, which were duplicated on copier, along with the handwritten notes.

Block Family - 2 Block family 1 Block Family 3 Block FAmily 4 Block family 5 Block family 6

Photos taken  from 1910-1930 from the estate of the James B. Block family, who  lived in Jemez Springs and Albuquerque.

Lieutenant Jim Black. U.S.A O.J.C

Lieutenant Jim Block. U.S.A O.J.C

0000-00-00_OldPhotos28 0000-00-00_OldPhotos27 0000-00-00_OldPhotos26

James Black, 12 months old. Jemez Springs

James Block, 12 months old. Jemez Springs

0000-00-00_OldPhotos24 0000-00-00_OldPhotos23 0000-00-00_OldPhotos22

June 7, 1908

0000-00-00_OldPhotos18 0000-00-00_OldPhotos17 0000-00-00_OldPhotos16 0000-00-00_OldPhotos15 0000-00-00_OldPhotos14  0000-00-00_OldPhotos12 0000-00-00_OldPhotos09 0000-00-00_OldPhotos08 0000-00-00_OldPhotos06 0000-00-00_OldPhotos05 0000-00-00_OldPhotos04 0000-00-00_OldPhotos02 0000-00-00_OldPhotos01

 - Copy (3) - Copy - Copy

84 & it still fits.

jemez snow - circa 1941 - Copy - Copy

Jemez snow at Routledge house, 1941.

home at freelove - Copy - Copy

Routledge family in front of home in Freelove, 1928.

herb, Elmer, Dorothy - Copy - Copy

Herb, Dorothy, Elmer.

herb & elmer - Copy - Copy

Herb & Elmer.

Grandma & Elmer - Copy - Copy

Grandma and Elmer.

File0023 - Copy (2) - Copy

Art, Ethel, Herb, Elmer, Dorothy & Betty in buckboard with horses Dollie and Star, 1925.

fentons - Copy (2) - Copy


Ethel & Elmer - Copy (2) - Copy

Ethel & Elmer.

elmer r - policia 1939 - Copy (2) - Copy

Elmer at Paliza, 1939.

elmer - 1940 - Copy (2) - Copy

Elmer, 1940.

elmer - 1921 - Copy (2) - Copy

Elmer, 1921.

bland - 1917 - Copy (2) - Copy

Bland, 1917.

art routledge - 1920 - Copy (5) - Copy

Art, 1920.

art in hollywood - 1914 - Copy (3) - Copy - Copy

Art in Hollywood, 1914.

Art & Ethel - Copy (2) - Copy - Copy

Art & Ethel.

a.r. with mule team - 1919 - Copy (3) - Copy - Copy

Art with mule team, 1919.

a routledge - circa 1910 - Copy (3) - Copy - Copy

Art Routledge circa 1910

a.r. building log cabin - 1922 - Copy (3) - Copy - Copy

Building log cabin, 1922.

art routledge at ranch - Copy (3) - Copy - Copy

Art Routledge at ranch

art's attempt at hollywood - Copy (3) - Copy - Copy

Art’s attempt at Hollywood

File0021 - Copy (2) - Copy

Elijah McLean Fenton

The Rev. Elijah McLean Fenton came to New Mexico as a missionary in 1881. In addition to his duties as a preacher, he became a surveyor and surveyed most of Sandoval County. In 1892, he was at the Jemez Pueblo mission, and his wife, Jessie Lime Fenton, was a school teacher there. He also served missions at Cuba and Regina. About this time, he and his family homesteaded on Cebolla Creek and built a stock pond which later became Fenton Lake. Elijah and Jessie had two children: Elijah Jr. and Jean. Over the years, their land holdings expanded to 640 acres. His brother, George, also homesteaded in the same area and was married to Jessie’s sister, May Lime, also a school teacher at Jemez Pueblo.

Elijah McLean (E.M.) Fenton Jr., aka Mack Fenton

Elijah McLean (E.M.) Fenton Jr., aka Mack Fenton, lived in the Jemez Mountains most of his life and worked at various jobs besides running their ranch. According to an article by Alice Fenton in the Sandoval County Review, Sept. 20, 1978, he was a surveyor, boiler maker’s apprentice, freight hauler, member of the National Guard, timber cruiser, and assistant forest ranger.

Alice Brown Fenton

In 1919, he married Alice Brown, and they continued to ranch on Cebolla Creek. After Mack and Alice retired, they moved to Ponderosa to be near their children. Most of the original Fenton land was sold to Calvin and Ruth Horn, who donated the land to Manzano Day School. It is operated currently as an environmental education center.

Ethel, Herbert & Ann Routledge; Stuart Fenton, Alice & Mac Fenton, Elmer Routledge, Jessie, Bob and Charlie Fenton. Date unknown.


picnic 1

Fentons on a picnic.

mary or jake

Mary on Jake.

Mack & burro.

Jessie, Jean & Mack.

hugh miller

Hugh Miller.

horse & bugy


em jr & jane

E.M. Fenton & Jean.

E.M. Fenton, Jr. and Jean Fenton

E.M. Fenton, Jr. and Jean Fenton

Jesse Lime Fenton, Jean Fenton and Mac Fenton

Jesse Lime Fenton, Jean Fenton and Mac Fenton

em jr & dog

E.M. Fenton & dog

em jr & alice

E. M. and Alice Fenton in 1956.

em fenton

E.M. Fenton.

Moses Abousleman came to America from Lebanon in the early 1890s and first made his way to Santa Fe. Always an entrepreneur, he was a traveling salesman, selling housewares of all kinds from the back of a wagon, according to an article by Linda Vozar Sweet in the New Mexico Magazine of May 1997. (Lebanese are the second largest group of European immigrants in New Mexico after the Italians.) He subsequently operated two trading posts at Jemez Pueblo before moving to Jemez Springs in 1912. His many businesses included a mercantile, livery stable, saloon and bath house. In addition to being a merchant, he owned as many 40,000 sheep, which he grazed throughout the Jemez Mountains. The first Abousleman store (or maybe a saloon) in Jemez Springs burned down in the 1920s. He then built what is now the Los Ojos Saloon, which his sons operated until it was sold in the 1940’s.

Sweet wrote that Moses Abousleman was responsible for many “firsts” in the Jemez Springs: first telephone, first hydro-electric generating plant (which later became the start of Jemez Mountain Electric Cooperative), first house to have indoor running water. Moses died in 1934; Edna the following year. Both are buried in the Jemez Springs Catholic Cemetery.

Moses and Edna’s eight children went on to become prominent citizens in Jemez Springs, Espanola and Bernalillo. Their daughter, Josephine Shepard, served three terms as mayor of Jemez Springs from 1970-78, and she was instrumental in starting the first library, first health clinic, first sewage treatment plant, first fire department, and first public school district. Another daughter, Lillian Sotel, was superintendent of the Jemez Valley Schools. A son, Fred, was manager of the Jemez Mountain Electric Coop.

Son Tom became a building contractor, remained in Jemez Springs and lived in the big white house that Moses built – the house in which he was born — until his death in 2009. He was the youngest of the eight children.

The following photos of their family were first shared at a Storytellers Get-together in 2003 at Jemez Fine Arts Gallery.


This also appears in Jemez Springs by Kathleen Weigner and Robert Borden. The caption identified this as a WPA school built around 1940, The adults are identified as Barbara Abousleman on the left and Sister Stephenia on the right.

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San Ysidro Stories: Enrique (Henry) Claudio Emilio Perea

Source: Conversation on February 22, 2017, with Jean Ramsey, Diana Sellers and Judith Isaacs


Enrique Claudio Emilio Perea – or Henry as he is called – was born at home, with the assistance of una comadrona (a midwife) in San Ysidro in 1932. He was one of 12 children. His father, Emiliano Perea, was born in 1895 and came with his family to San Ysidro in the early 1900s; they moved from Bernalillo and then to San Luis before coming here.

“My grandfather, Juan Perea, died from injuries in a horse and wagon accident, and my grandmother, Josephita Perea, moved to San Ysidro and bought property, presently just south of Pricilla Christalaw’s home to the Powell holdings, and from hill-to-hill (east-west) along Highway 4. It was around 160 acres. She and my dad and uncles operated a freight company, using Model T trucks, which ran from Bernalillo to Cuba. Eventually, she divided the land into parcels for her four sons. They were all farmers. We all had big gardens and a few cattle, which was enough to feed us.”

Henry said he and his friends liked to play Ante Over when they were kids. “We would throw a tennis ball over the house. Also hide and seek. We didn’t have radio or TV.”

He said he wasn’t a very good student, but he had excellent attendance. He showed an award he had received in sixth grade and explained how he earned it. “The teachers added the scores for each month, and the one with the highest score got a certificate. Then, at the end of the year, the one with the most certificates got the BIG certificate. Henry earned that because he got six out of nine certificates. “You know what, though? The girl that got the second most certificates got passed on to 8th grade. I only got passed on to 7th.”

Attendance Award

One memory from grade school was not pleasant. “The teacher for the 3rd, 4th and 5th grades hit me over the head with a book every single day. Looking back, I can say there was something wrong with her. Another time that teacher had gone riding with a man, and a girl in my class saw her and told people she saw the teacher on a date. The teacher found out the girl had told and hit her over the head with a book all day long one day. We went home for lunch, came back, and she started hitting her again. We didn’t have any lessons that day. Honest to God truth!” He added, “Ohhh, no! We didn’t dare tell our parents.” The school had 10-12 students taught by one teacher. He remembers that one of his teachers was Mrs. Mahboub, and that Bertha Caldwell was the bus driver to high school in Bernalillo.

He explained why he was 19 years old when he graduated from high school. “We had a pre-first grade for those who couldn’t speak English. That’s so we could keep up. The grade school was the building that is the Village Office now.” He went to the public high school in Bernalillo for high school for two years, which became Our Lady of Sorrows, where he graduated. The law changed so that the bus couldn’t drop students at the parochial school, so for two years he boarded in Bernalillo. “The nuns had some extra rooms, so me and two boys from Peña Blanca stayed there. I would hitchhike home on Friday night or Saturday morning and hitchhike back on Sunday night or Monday.”

Pat and Henry

Henry and his three brothers joined the service. The older boys served overseas in World War II, and Henry and his younger brother served in the Korean War. His father had served in World War I. After Henry’ finished his military service, he lived in California where he met his wife, Maria Patricia Perea (Pat). Pat’s family lived in Albuquerque in the Los Duranes neighborhood near Old Town. “She came out to help her sister who was due to have a baby. Then she went back, then came to California again, and we got engaged. She gave me no choice about getting married. She told me, ‘If we don’t get married, I will give you back your ring.’ We had to go to Juarez because she wasn’t old enough to get married here. Then, once we were married, the church would marry us here. So, I got married twice in one week – the second in San Felipe Church in Albuquerque.” His wife was 15 years old. He said, “Her sister asked me to take her to a concert when we first met, and I asked how old she was, and she said 18!” They were married 53 years.

Henry was a supply clerk in the Army and then worked as a barber in California. (His red-and-white striped barber pole sits in his living room today.) In 1972, Henry and his wife returned to San Ysidro and bought a liquor store/bar called La Mesa Blanca, which he operated until 1997. That building remains on Hwy. 550. He also owned and ran Henry’s Backhoe and Pumping Service, which provided earth-moving and septic service for the area. He served as trustee and mayor pro tem of San Ysidro for 22 years, and was mayor for one term in 1998.

Henry remembers that he ran cattle across what is now Hwy. 550 up against White Mesa. He said up until the 1960s, every resident could graze three cows on the common land. In the early 2000s, the Perea Wetlands Area at Rio Salado bridge was developed by the BLM in part of that land. He and his wife had four children, one of whom died in infancy. His two daughters live nearby – one in San Ysidro and one in Ponderosa– and his son lives in Albuquerque.

The San Ysidro land grant was once much larger than it is today. He said, “It covered from the Zia boundary to near Red Mesa (east-west) and from Jemez Pueblo to White Mesa (north-south). Henry explained what happened: “A law firm owned by a man named Donnell petitioned the government in Spain on behalf of San Ysidro and got what was called a patent. Then he turned around and filed against the residents for back taxes. He got the land and sold it to the U.S. government. Then they gave some of the land to Zia Pueblo and some to BLM.” A sore point with him and others is that the San Ysidro cemetery was across the river and that became Zia land. Now the gate is locked and the cemetery is neglected. Because of that, he has elected to be buried in Albuquerque with other family members and recently exhumed a sister’s body and had her reburied in Bernalillo.


[In 2004, Margaia Forcier-Call volunteered to be the Story Lady and continued for 9 years.]

I very much enjoyed being Story Lady with the children of the Jemez. Sitting on the floor with them, on our “story-time quilt” made by Donna Lea, was a time of many precious moments. Not only did I read books to them, re-enacted very short stories (with home-made “props”), but once a year, we went through an Alphabet Book — a few (perhaps 4) letters at a time. Also, we ended the last 5 or so minutes, with a “sticker book” in which they learned, numbers, colors, shapes, etc.

Five-year-old Nash brought [a book] to his mother saying, “Can I read you a story?” She smiled saying sure, but not knowing what to expect. He began reading from this book, and read the first 10 pages, to her astonishment.  She asked, “Where did you learn how to read? Who taught you?”  He answered, “I don’t know.  I just know how to read this.”  He brought the book to his last session at the library, and read for us. An incentive for the children present!  He usually sat next to me, on the floor, and looked attentively at the book/pages I was reading. . . .  When he started reading at school, the teacher told his mother that he changed his voice at every character he was reading about. I laughed.  Apparently, he was mimicking me, since I did that when I read to the children.  Each animal or human character had its own voice…

In my last years, I had a brother and sister team in the group. Henry was at least a year or two older than his little sister, Imogene (who joined the group when she was not quite 3 yet). During his last year with us (after he turned 5), Henry often commented on the story we were reading. (I welcomed the children’s participation.) He would politely say, “Miss Margaia…” then give his comment. One day, immediately after Henry’s comment, Imogene blurted out: “Miss Gaia, Miss Gaia…”  and had her little say.  I couldn’t help smiling.

My memories of these hours spent with the children of Jemez, are very fond ones.

The fourth library remodel in 2008 joined the existing library building with the former village office building.

Front view of library during Fourth remodel on July 7, 2007. Photo by Shane Johnson

Front view of library during Fourth remodel on July 7, 2007. Photo by Shane Johnson

Side view of library during Fourth remodel on August 19, 2007. Photo by Shane Johnson

Side view of library during Fourth remodel on August 19, 2007. Photo by Shane Johnson

Front view of Library during Fourth remodel on September 26, 2007. Photo by Shane Johnson

Front view of Library during Fourth remodel on September 26, 2007. Photo by Shane Johnson

Front view of library during Fourth remodel on October 01, 2007. Photo by Shane Johnson

Front view of library during Fourth remodel on October 01, 2007. Photo by Shane Johnson

Long side view of library during Fourth remodel on November 05, 2007.

Long side view of library during Fourth remodel on November 05, 2007.

Library fourth remodel completed with new mid section completed. Photo by Shane Johnson

Library fourth remodel completed with new mid section completed. Photo by Shane Johnson